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Diabetes Type 2 vs Type 1



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We hear the term “diabetes” and automatically think we know what it is, right? Well, those of us with diabetes probably do know that there are 2 or maybe 3 depending how you want to classify it, types of diabetes. Some will call prediabetes a form of diabetes, and I guess that is true, kind of like pre-school is kind of like school.

Then there are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. And don’t forget about gestational diabetes. We will talk briefly about that one at the end. In this video, I will attempt to give you the similarities and differences in each as well some possible causes.

Diabetes affects approximately 30 million Americans today. That is nearly 10% of the population. Diabetes is a disorder of the endocrine system. With diabetes, blood sugar levels stay high because either the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin or the cells of the body are resistant to insulin and the pancreas can’t keep up. Either way, the glucose or sugar level in the blood stream becomes too high and the body cannot function properly.

Pre-Diabetes

In the U.S., 79 million people over age 20 have blood glucose levels that are above the normal range, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. This is known as pre-diabetes. It is also known as impaired glucose tolerance. This type of diabetes is difficult to diagnose because most people with pre-diabetes usually have no symptoms.

But pre-diabetes is almost always present before a person develops type 2 diabetes. Without symptomology however, it is hard to diagnose because most people don’t go see a doctor if they have no symptoms of a disease. Complications normally associated with diabetes, such as heart disease, can begin to develop even when a person has pre-diabetes.

In general, people who have a fasting plasma blood glucose in the 100-125 mg/dl range are defined as having impaired fasting glucose or pre-diabetes. Like many diseases, early detection can be very good. Talk to your doctor about testing for pre-diabetes.

You may be able to prevent type 2 diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

This used to be called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas are actually destroyed by the immune system. Type 1 diabetes is actually considered an autoimmune disease. Its onset has nothing to do with diet or lifestyle. There is nothing you can do to prevent Type 1, and—at present—nothing you can do to get rid of it.

Type 1 diabetes most commonly starts in people under the age of 20, but may occur at any age.

According to the Mayo Clinic, the most common symptoms of Type 1 are:

Increased thirst
Frequent urination
Bedwetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed during the night
Extreme hunger
Unintended weight loss
Irritability and other mood changes
Fatigue and weakness
Blurred vision
In females, a vaginal yeast infection

There is no cure for Type 1 and it cannot be reversed.

To determine diabetes, a blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 is normal.

A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 is considered prediabetes. If it’s 126 or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.

If you’re diagnosed with diabetes, the doctor may do other tests to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes — since the two conditions often require different treatments.

Type 2 Diabetes

According to Web MD, with type 2 diabetes, the body continues to produce insulin, although insulin production by the body may significantly decrease over time. The pancreas produces either not enough insulin, or the body is unable to recognize insulin and use it properly. When there isn’t enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose can’t get into the body’s cells to be used as energy.

This glucose then builds up in the blood.

This condition was once known adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren’t enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

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