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Gestational diabetes Management - One Health



Diabetes Mellitus – Gestational diabetes Management – One Health

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Prevention
A 2015 review found that when done during pregnancy moderate physical exercise is effective for the prevention of gestational diabetes. A 2014 review however did not find a significant effect.
Theoretically, smoking cessation may decrease the risk of gestational diabetes among smokers.
Management
Treatment of GDM with diet and insulin reduces health problems mother and child. Treatment of GDM is also accompanied by more inductions of labour.
A repeat OGTT should be carried out 6 weeks after delivery, to confirm the diabetes has disappeared. Afterwards, regular screening for type 2 diabetes is advised.
If a diabetic diet or G.I. Diet, exercise, and oral medication are inadequate to control glucose levels, insulin therapy may become necessary.
The development of macrosomia can be evaluated during pregnancy by using sonography. Women who use insulin, with a history of stillbirth, or with hypertension are managed like women with overt diabetes.
Lifestyle
Counselling before pregnancy (for example, about preventive folic acid supplements) and multidisciplinary management are important for good pregnancy outcomes. Most women can manage their GDM with dietary changes and exercise. Self monitoring of blood glucose levels can guide therapy. Some women will need antidiabetic drugs, most commonly insulin therapy.
Any diet needs to provide sufficient calories for pregnancy, typically 2,000 to 2,500 kcal with the exclusion of simple carbohydrates. The main goal of dietary modifications is to avoid peaks in blood sugar levels. This can be done by spreading carbohydrate intake over meals and snacks throughout the day, and using slow-release carbohydrate sources—known as the G.I. Diet.
Since insulin resistance is highest in mornings, breakfast carbohydrates need to be restricted more. Ingesting more fiber in foods with whole grains, or fruit and vegetables can also reduce the risk of gestational diabetes. Regular moderately intense physical exercise is advised, although there is no consensus on the specific structure of exercise programs for GDM.
Self monitoring can be accomplished using a handheld capillary glucose dosage system. Compliance with these glucometer systems can be low. Target ranges advised by the Australasian
Regular blood samples can be used to determine HbA1c levels, which give an idea of glucose control over a longer time period. Research suggests a possible benefit of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of diabetes and related risks for both mother and child.
Medication
If monitoring reveals failing control of glucose levels with these measures, or if there is evidence of complications like excessive fetal growth, treatment with insulin might be necessary. This is most commonly fast-acting insulin given just before eating to blunt glucose rises after meals. Care needs to be taken to avoid low blood sugar levels due to excessive insulin.
Insulin therapy can be normal or very tight; more injections can result in better control but requires more effort, and there is no consensus that it has large benefits. A 2016 Cochrane review concluded that quality evidence is not yet available to determine the best blood sugar range for improving health for pregnant

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