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Management of diabetes mellitus type 1 - One health



Diabetes Mellitus – Management of diabetes mellitus type 1 – One health

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Management of diabetes mellitus type 1
Lifestyle
A low-carbohydrate diet, in addition to medications, is useful in type 1 DM. There are camps for children to teach them how and when to use or monitor their insulin without parental help. As psychological stress may have a negative effect on diabetes, a number of measures have been recommended including: exercising, taking up a new hobby, or joining a charity among others.
Insulin
There are four main types of insulin: rapid acting insulin, short acting insulin, intermediate acting insulin, and long acting insulin. The rapid acting insulin is used as a bolus dosage. The action onsets in 15 minutes with peak actions in 30 to 90 minutes. Short acting insulin action onsets within 30 minutes with the peak action around 2 to 4 hours.
Intermediate acting insulin action onsets within 1 to 2 hours with peak action of 4 to 10 hours. Long acting insulin is usually given once per day. The action onset is roughly 1 to 2 hours with a sustained action of up to 24 hours.
Injections of insulin either via subcutaneous injection or insulin pump— are necessary for those living with type 1 diabetes because it cannot be treated by diet and exercise alone. In addition to insulin therapy dietary management is important. This includes keeping track of the carbohydrate content of food and careful monitoring of blood glucose levels using glucose meters.
Today, the most common insulins are biosynthetic products produced using genetic recombination techniques; formerly, cattle or pig insulins were used, and even sometimes insulin from fish.Untreated type 1 diabetes can commonly lead to diabetic ketoacidosis which is a diabetic coma which can be fatal if untreated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can cause cerebral edema (accumulation of liquid in the brain).
This is a life-threatening issue and children are at a higher risk for cerebral edema than adults, causing ketoacidosis to be the most common cause of death in pediatric diabetes. Treatment of diabetes focuses on lowering blood sugar or glucose (BG) to the near normal range, approximately 80 to140 mg/dl (4.4 to 7.8 mmol/L). The ultimate goal of normalizing BG is to avoid long-term complications that affect the nervous system (e.g. peripheral neuropathy leading to pain and/or loss of feeling in the extremities), and the cardiovascular system (e.g. heart attacks, vision loss).
This level of control over a prolonged period of time can be varied by a target HbA1c level of less than 7.5%. People with type 1 diabetes always need to use insulin, but treatment can lead to low BG (hypoglycemia), i.e. BG less than 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l). Hypoglycemia is a very common occurrence in people with diabetes, usually the result of a mismatch in the balance among insulin, food and physical activity.
Mild cases are self-treated by eating or drinking something high in sugar. Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and are treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon. Continuous glucose monitors can alert patients to the presence of dangerously high or low blood sugar levels, but technical issues have limited the effect these devices have had on clinical practice. As of 2016 an artificial pancreas looks promising with safety issues still being studied.
Pancreas transplantation
In some cases, a pancreas transplant can restore proper glucose regulation. However, the surgery and accompanying immunosuppression required may be more dangerous than continued insulin replacement therapy, so is generally only used with or some time after a kidney transplant.

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