Pediatrics - TOF Surgery In India At Affordable Low Cost
Tetralogy of Fallot Surgery in India (TOF) Surgery [Pediatrics]
What Is Tetralogy of Fallot ?
Tetralogy of Fallot involves four defects : –
- A large ventricular septal defect (VSD)
- Pulmonary stenosis
- Right ventricular hypertrophy
- An overriding aorta
Ventricular Septal Defect
The heart has a wall that separates the chambers on its left side from those on its right side. This wall is called a septum. The septum prevents blood from mixing between the two sides of the heart. A VSD is a hole in the part of the septum that separates the ventricles—the lower chambers of the heart. The hole allows oxygen rich blood to flow from the left ventricle into the right ventricle instead of flowing into the aorta, the main artery leading out to the body …
This is a narrowing of the pulmonary valve and the passageway through which blood flows from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries. Normally, oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle flows through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary arteries and out to the lungs to pick up oxygen. In pulmonary stenosis, the heart has to work harder than normal to pump blood, and not enough blood can get to the lungs.
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
This is when the right ventricle thickens because the heart has to pump harder than it should to move blood through the narrowed pulmonary valve.
This is a defect in the location of the aorta. In a healthy heart, the aorta is attached to the left ventricle, allowing only oxygen-rich blood to go to the body. In Tetralogy of Fallot, the aorta is between the left and right ventricles, directly over the VSD. As a result, oxygen poor blood from the right ventricle can flow directly into the aorta instead of into the pulmonary artery to the lungs.
What Causes Tetralogy of Fallot ?
These conditions and factors include : –
- German measles (rubella) and some other viral illnesses
- Poor nutrition
- Overuse of alcohol
- Age (being older than 40)
- Heredity may play a role in this heart defect. An adult with tetralogy of Fallot may have an increased chance of having a baby with this defect.
- Children with genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome, often have congenital heart defects, including tetralogy of Fallot.
What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Tetralogy of Fallot ?
An important symptom of tetralogy of Fallot is cyanosis, or a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails. Low levels of blood in the oxygen cause this symptom.
Babies with tetralogy of Fallot sometimes have “tet spells” in response to an activity like crying or having a bowel movement. A “tet spell” occurs when the oxygen level in the blood suddenly drops. This causes the baby to become very blue.
The baby may also :
- Have a hard time breathing
- Become very tired and limp
- Not respond to a parent’s voice or touch
- Become very fussy
- Lose consciousness
How Is Tetralogy of Fallot Diagnosed ?
Doctors perform a physical exam on the baby and order medical tests to diagnose tetralogy of Fallot. The signs and symptoms usually appear during the first weeks of life. Your infant’s doctor may see the signs or symptoms during a routine checkup. Some parents also notice cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails) or poor feeding and bring the baby to the doctor.
How Is Tetralogy of Fallot Treated ?
Tetralogy of Fallot must be repaired with open-heart surgery, either soon after birth or later in infancy. The goal of surgery is to repair the defects so the heart can work as normally as possible. Achieving this goal can greatly improve a child’s health and quality of life.
Your baby’s heart doctor and heart surgeon will determine when to do the surgery. Their decision will be based on the baby’s health and weight, how severe the defects are, and how severe the baby’s symptoms are.
Types of Surgery
Complete Intracardiac Repair
Surgery to repair tetralogy of Fallot in India is done to improve blood flow to the lungs and to make sure that oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood flows to the right places …
Temporary or Palliative Surgery
It was common in the past to do a temporary surgery during infancy to improve blood flow to the lungs, and then do a complete repair later in childhood. Now, most babies with tetralogy of Fallot have their defects fully repaired in infancy …
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Source by Pankaj Nagpal