Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) and Drop Foot - Podiatrist in Spring Hill and Homosassa FL - John Baker, DPM
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) and Drop Foot – Podiatrist in Spring Hill and Homosassa FL – John Baker, DPM
Dr. John Baker discusses how he treats patients with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) and drop foot using the Richie Brace Ankle Foot Orthoses (AFO).
Visit our website: http://www.bakerpodiatry.com
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction
PTTD and Drop Foot
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of several terms to describe a painful, progressive flatfoot deformity in adults. Other terms include posterior tibial tendon insufficiency and adult acquired flatfoot.
The term adult acquired flatfoot is more appropriate because it allows a broader recognition of causative factors, not only limited to the posterior tibial tendon, an event where the posterior tibial tendon looses strength and function.
The adult acquired flatfoot is a progressive, symptomatic (painful) deformity resulting from gradual stretch (attenuation) of the tibialis posterior tendon as well as the ligaments that support the arch of the foot.
Most flat feet are not painful, particularly those flat feet seen in children. In the adult acquired flatfoot, pain occurs because soft tissues (tendons and ligaments) have been torn. The deformity progresses or worsens because once the vital ligaments and posterior tibial tendon are lost, nothing can take their place to hold up the arch of the foot.
The painful, progressive adult acquired flatfoot affects women four times as frequently as men. It occurs in middle to older age people with a mean age of 60 years. Most people who develop the condition already have flat feet. A change occurs in one foot where the arch begins to flatten more than before, with pain and swelling developing on the inside of the ankle. Why this event occurs in some people (female more than male) and only in one foot remains poorly understood. Contributing factors increasing the risk of adult acquired flatfoot are diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.
The following scheme of events is thought to cause the adult acquired flatfoot:
A person with flat feet has greater load placed on the posterior tibial tendon which is the main tendon unit supporting up the arch of the foot. Throughout life, aging leads to decreased strength of muscles, tendons and ligaments. The blood supply diminishes to tendons with aging as arteries narrow. Heavier, obese patients have more weight on the arch and have greater narrowing of arteries due to atherosclerosis. In some people, the posterior tibial tendon finally gives out or tears. This is not a sudden event in most cases. Rather, it is a slow, gradual stretching followed by inflammation and degeneration of the tendon. Once the posterior tibial tendon stretches, the ligaments of the arch stretch and tear. The bones of the arch then move out of position with body weight pressing down from above. The foot rotates inward at the ankle in a movement called pronation. The arch appears collapsed, and the heel bone is tilted to the inside. The deformity can progress until the foot literally dislocates outward from under the ankle joint.
There are three stages of the adult acquired flatfoot:
Stage I: Inflammation and swelling of the posterior tibial tendon around the inside of the ankle.
Stage II: Visible deformity comparing one foot to the other, as the symptomatic foot becomes flatter and more deformed. The deformity is movable and correctable in this stage.
Stage III:The foot progresses to a rigid, non-movable flat foot deformity that is painful, primarily on the outside of the ankle.
Visit our website: Visit our website: http://www.bakerpodiatry.com