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Pre Diabetes: Risk Factor, Diagnosis and Management



Pre diabetes, which may be known as Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) or Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), occurs when blood glucose levels are higher than normal, although not high enough to be diabetes. There are no signs or symptoms. People with pre-diabetes have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular (heart and circulation) disease.

Risk factors of pre diabetes
– A family history of type 2 diabetes
– Being overweight
– Waist measurement
– Low level of physical activity
– Smoking
– High blood pressure or high cholesterol
– History of heart disease or stroke
– Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy)
– Polycystic ovary syndrome
– Some antipsychotic medications

Diagnosis of pre diabetes
Pre diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test that checks your blood glucose level. Any blood glucose test that shows higher than normal blood glucose levels needs to be checked further. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is the best way to diagnose pre diabetes. The results of the OGTT will show whether your blood glucose levels are in the normal, pre-diabetes or diabetes range.

If you are diagnosed with pre diabetes, you will have one or both of:
– Impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
When your fasting blood glucose level is higher than normal, but still below the level for a diagnosis of diabetes
– Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
When your blood glucose level two hours after an OGTT is higher than normal, but is still below the level for diabetes. The fasting blood glucose level may be in the normal range.

Management of pre diabetes
Pre diabetes can be prevented by making lifestyle changes, including:
1. Weight loss
Helps the insulin in your body work better and lower your blood glucose levels
2. Regular moderate physical activity
Actiivity help you manage your weight and will also lower your blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Exercise also makes your insulin work better
3. Healthy diet
This involves less fat, especially saturated fats, and more fruit, vegetables and high-fibre wholegrain foods
4. Stopping smoking
Smoking causes insulin resistance and increases the risk of blood vessel disease
5. Blood pressure and cholesterol control
Blood pressure and cholesterol control should be well managed and checked regularly by your doctor

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