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Type 1 Diabetes - Medical Video



Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Onset most often occurs in childhood, but the disease can also develop in adults in their late 30s and early 40s.

See Clinical Findings in Diabetes Mellitus, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and neurologic manifestations of DM.

Signs and symptoms
The classic symptoms of type 1 diabetes are as follows:

Polyuria
Polydipsia
Polyphagia
Unexplained weight loss
Other symptoms may include fatigue, nausea, and blurred vision.

The onset of symptomatic disease may be sudden. It is not unusual for patients with type 1 diabetes to present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

See Clinical Presentation for more detail.

Diagnosis
Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following :

A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level ≥126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L), or
A 2-hour plasma glucose level ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or
A random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis

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